Pain Killers:Facts
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Facts about Pain Killers
Facts about pain killers show that there are two main types, opiates and opioids. The opiates and the opioids (derivatives of opiates). Opiates are the alkaloids found in opium (a white liquid extract of unripe seeds of the poppy plant). Opioids are any medication which bind to opioid receptors in the central nervous system or gastointestinal tract.
According to Wikipedia and facts about pain killers, there are four broad classes of opioids:
  • Endogenous opioid peptides (produced in the body: endorphins, dynorphins, enkephalins)
  • Opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine)
  • Semi-synthetic opioids (heroin, oxycodone, hydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, nicomorphine)
  • Fully synthetic opioids (pethidine or Demerol, methadone, fentanyl, propoxyphene, pentazocine, buprenorphine, butorphanol, tramadol, and more)
Facts about pain killers show that opioids are used in medicine as strong analgesics, for relief of severe or chronic pain. Interestingly, there is no upper limit for the dosage of opioids used to achieve pain relief, but the dose must be increased gradually to allow for the development of tolerance to adverse effects (for example, respiratory depression). According to eMedicine and facts about pain killers, "Some people with intense pain get such high doses that the same dose would be fatal if taken by someone who was not suffering from pain."
Facts about Pain Killers: Side Effects / Adverse Reactions of Opioids:
Common side effects and adverse reactions:
•dry mouth
•miosis (contraction of the pupil)
•orthostatic hypotension (blood pressure lowers upon sudden standing)
•urinary retention
•constipation and/or fecal impaction
Facts about Pin Killers: Less common side effects and adverse reactions:
•bradycardia (slow heart rate)
•tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
•raised intracranial pressure
•ureteric or biliary spasm
•muscle rigidity
Facts about Pain Killers: Most severe side effects and adverse reactions:
•respiratory depression
•fatal overdose
Facts about Pain Killers: More Information on Specific Pain Killers
•Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
•Codeine (Tylenol #2,3,4)
•Darvocet (Propoxyphene/Acetaminophen)
•Darvon (Propoxyphene)
•Duragesic (Fentanyl Patch)
•Hydromorphone (Palladone, Dilaudid)
•Morphine (MSContin, Oramorph)
•Oxycodone (OxyContin, Roxicodone)
•Percocet (Oxycodone/Acetaminophen)
•Percodan (Oxycodone/Aspirin)
•Talwin NX (Pentazocine/Naloxone)
•Ultracet (Tramadol/Acetaminophen)
•Ultram (Tramadol)
•Vicodin (Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen)

Pain Killers:Facts
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